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Joseph Stalin (Wicked History (Paperback)) By Sean Mccollum pdf .. [PDF] A Life in Secrets: Vera Atkins and the Missing Agents of WWII by. BY JOSEPH STALIN. •INTERNATIONAL . colonial and dependent peoples throughout the world. Im- agerial ability and the knowledge of all the 'secrets' 0. How did Stalin come to power and how did he make the. USSR into a world power? The Rise of Stalin in the USSR Helped to form Russia's secret police force.
Stalin often gave conflicting signals regarding state repression. Stalin orchestrated the arrest of many former opponents in the Communist Party as well as sitting members of the Central Committee: During the s and s, NKVD groups assassinated defectors and opponents abroad;  in August , Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico, eliminating the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership. Repressions further intensified in December and remained at a high level until November , a period known as the Great Purge.
Stalin initiated all key decisions during the Terror, personally directing many of its operations and taking an interest in their implementation. As a Marxist—Leninist, Stalin expected an inevitable conflict between competing capitalist powers; after Nazi Germany annexed Austria and then part of Czechoslovakia in , Stalin recognised this war was looming. He sought to maintain Soviet neutrality, hoping that a German war against France and Britain would lead to Soviet dominance in Europe.
As Britain and France seemed unwilling to commit to an alliance with the Soviet Union, Stalin saw a better deal with the Germans. The Soviets further demanded parts of eastern Finland, but the Finnish government refused. The speed of the German victory over and occupation of France in mid took Stalin by surprise. Plans were made for the Soviet government to evacuate to Kuibyshev , although Stalin decided to remain in Moscow, believing his flight would damage troop morale.
Against the advice of Zhukov and other generals, Stalin emphasised attack over defence. The Soviets allied with the United Kingdom and United States;  although the US joined the war against Germany in , little direct American assistance reached the Soviets until late In April Stalin overrode Stavka by ordering the Soviets' first serious counter-attack, an attempt to seize German-held Kharkov in eastern Ukraine.
This attack proved unsuccessful. By November , the Soviets had begun to repulse the important German strategic southern campaign and, although there were 2. In Allied countries, Stalin was increasingly depicted in a positive light over the course of the war. President Franklin D.
Roosevelt , who were together known as the "Big Three".
Using the idea of collective responsibility as a basis, Stalin's government abolished their autonomous republics and between late and deported the majority of their populations to Central Asia and Siberia. In February , the three leaders met at the Yalta Conference. Churchill was concerned that this was the case, and unsuccessfully tried to convince the US that the Western Allies should pursue the same goal.
And what is so awful in his having fun with a woman, after such horrors? With Germany defeated, Stalin switched focus to the war with Japan , transferring half a million troops to the Far East. Soviet, U.
After the war, Stalin was—according to Service—at the "apex of his career". Despite his strengthened international position, Stalin was cautious about internal dissent and desire for change among the population. In this he recalled the Decembrist Revolt by Russian soldiers returning from having defeated France in the Napoleonic Wars. About half were then imprisoned in labour camps. By January , three percent of the Soviet population was imprisoned or in internal exile, with 2.
The NKVD were ordered to catalogue the scale of destruction during the war. Stalin allowed the Russian Orthodox Church to retain the churches it had opened during the war. Stalin's health was deteriorating, and heart problems forced a two-month vacation in the latter part of In the post-war period there were often food shortages in Soviet cities,  and the USSR experienced a major famine from to The US began pushing its interests on every continent, acquiring air force bases in Africa and Asia and ensuring pro-U.
The US also offered financial assistance as part of the Marshall Plan on the condition that they opened their markets to trade, aware that the Soviets would never agree.
In , Stalin edited and rewrote sections of Falsifiers of History , published as a series of Pravda articles in February and then in book form. Written in response to public revelations of the Soviet alliance with Germany, it focused on blaming Western powers for the war. After the war, Stalin sought to retain Soviet dominance across Eastern Europe while expanding its influence in Asia. Churchill observed that an " Iron Curtain " had been drawn across Europe, separating the east from the west.
Stalin suggested that a unified, but demilitarised, German state be established, hoping that it would either come under Soviet influence or remain neutral. In October , Mao took power in China. Initially Stalin refused to repeal the Sino-Soviet Treaty of , which significantly benefited the Soviet Union over China, although in January he relented and agreed to sign a new treaty between the two countries.
At the end of the Second World War, the Soviet Union and the United States divided up the Korean Peninsula, formerly a Japanese colonial possession, along the 38th parallel , setting up a communist government in the north and a pro-Western government in the south. The Soviet Union was one of the first nations to extend diplomatic recognition to the newly created state of Israel in In his later years, Stalin was in poor health.
From until his death, Stalin only gave three public speeches, two of which lasted only a few minutes. It sought to provide a guide to leading the country for after his death.
On 1 March , Stalin's staff found him semi-conscious on the bedroom floor of his Volynskoe dacha. Stalin's death was announced on 6 March. Stalin left no anointed successor nor a framework within which a transfer of power could take place. Stalin claimed to have embraced Marxism at the age of fifteen,  and it served as the guiding philosophy throughout his adult life;  according to Kotkin, Stalin held "zealous Marxist convictions",  while Montefiore suggested that Marxism held a "quasi-religious" value for Stalin.
Rieber noted that he had been raised in "a society where rebellion was deeply rooted in folklore and popular rituals". I stand on the ground of the latter".
As a Marxist, Stalin believed in an inevitable class war between the world's proletariat and bourgeoise. Stalin adhered to the Leninist variant of Marxism. Whereas Lenin believed that all countries across Europe and Asia would readily unite as a single state following proletariat revolution, Stalin argued that national pride would prevent this, and that different socialist states would have to be formed; in his view, a country like Germany would not readily submit to being part of a Russian-dominated federal state.
Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.
Stalinism was a development of Leninism,  and while Stalin avoided using the term "Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism", he allowed others to do so. This concept was intricately linked to factional struggles within the party, particularly against Trotsky. For this reason, he retained the Leninist view that world revolution was still a necessity to ensure the ultimate victory of socialism. Stalin viewed nations as contingent entities which were formed by capitalism and could merge into others.
He argued that Jewish nationalism, particularly Zionism , was hostile to socialism. Ethnically Georgian,  Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language,  and did not begin learning Russian until the age of eight or nine. Georgian by nationality, Russian by loyalty, internationalist by ideology, Soviet by citizenship. Stalin had a soft voice,  and when speaking Russian did so slowly, carefully choosing his phrasing. Trotsky and several other Soviet figures promoted the idea that Stalin was a mediocrity.
Stalin could play different roles to different audiences,  and was adept at deception, often deceiving others as to his true motives and aims. Stalin was ruthless,  temperamentally cruel,  and had a propensity for violence high even among the Bolsheviks. Averell Harriman . Keenly interested in the arts,  Stalin admired artistic talent.
Stalin was a keen and accomplished billiards player,  and collected watches. Stalin publicly condemned anti-Semitism,  although was repeatedly accused of it. Friendship was important to Stalin,  and he used it to gain and maintain power. Stalin was attracted to women and there are no reports of any homosexual tendencies;  according to Montefiore, in his early life Stalin "rarely seems to have been without a girlfriend".
Stalin married his first wife, Ekaterina Svanidze, in According to Montefiore, theirs was "a true love match";  Volkogonov suggested that she was "probably the one human being he had really loved".
He was captured by the German Army and then committed suicide. Stalin's second wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva ; theirs was not an easy relationship, and they often rowed.
After Nadezdha's death, Stalin became increasingly close to his sister-in-law Zhenya Alliluyeva;  Montefiore believed that they were probably lovers. The historian Robert Conquest stated that Stalin, "perhaps[…] determined the course of the twentieth century" more than any other individual. Stalin strengthened and stabilised the Soviet Union;  Service suggested that without him the country might have collapsed long before Stalin's Soviet Union has been characterised as a totalitarian state,  with Stalin its authoritarian leader.
The real motivation for the terror, according to Harris, was an over-exaggerated fear of counterrevolution. McDermott nevertheless cautioned against "over-simplistic stereotypes"—promoted in the fiction of writers like Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , Vasily Grossman , and Anatoly Rybakov —that portrayed Stalin as an omnipotent and omnipresent tyrant who controlled every aspect of Soviet life through repression and totalitarianism.
A vast literature devoted to Stalin has been produced. Leninists remain divided in their views on Stalin; some view him as Lenin's authentic successor, while others believe he betrayed Lenin's ideas by deviating from them.
With a high number of excess deaths occurring under his rule, Stalin has been labeled "one of the most notorious figures in history". As the majority of excess deaths under Stalin were not direct killings, the exact number of victims of Stalinism is difficult to calculate due to lack of consensus among scholars on which deaths can be attributed to the regime.
Official records reveal , documented executions in the Soviet Union between and ; , of these were carried out between and , the years of the Great Purge. Wheatcroft and Michael Ellman attribute roughly 3 million deaths to the Stalinist regime, including executions and deaths from criminal negligence. Snyder in summarized modern data, made after the opening of the Soviet archives in the s, and concludes that Stalin was directly responsible for 6 million deaths along with 3 million indirect deaths.
He notes that the estimate is far lower than the estimates of 20 million or above which were made before access to the archives. Snyder also makes the comparison of this estimate of 6—9 million non-combatants killed by Stalin's regime to the estimate of 11—12 million non-combatants killed by the Nazi regime.
Historians continue to debate whether or not the —33 Ukrainian famine—known in Ukraine as the Holodomor — should be called a genocide. In , the Ukrainian Parliament declared it to be such,  and in a Ukrainian court posthumously convicted Stalin, Lazar Kaganovich , Stanislav Kosior , and other Soviet leaders of genocide.
This interpretation has been rejected by more recent historical studies. Shortly after his death, the Soviet Union went through a period of de-Stalinization. Malenkov denounced the Stalin personality cult,  which was subsequently criticised in Pravda. There, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for both his mass repression and his personality cult. Khrushchev's de-Stalinisation process in Soviet society ended when he was replaced as leader by Leonid Brezhnev in ; the latter introduced a level of re-Stalinisation within the Soviet Union.
Amid the social and economic turmoil of the post-Soviet period, many Russians viewed Stalin as having overseen an era of order, predictability, and pride. The only part of the former Soviet Union where admiration for Stalin has remained consistently widespread is Georgia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Soviet leader. For other uses, see Stalin disambiguation. This name uses Eastern Slavic naming customs ; the patronymic is Besarionovich and the family name is Stalin.
Joseph Stalin in an authorised image taken in and used for state publicity purposes. Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili [a]. Central institution membership. Other offices held. Main article: Early life of Joseph Stalin. The existing government of landlords and capitalists must be replaced by a new government, a government of workers and peasants.
The existing pseudo-government which was not elected by the people and which is not accountable to the people must be replaced by a government recognised by the people, elected by representatives of the workers, soldiers and peasants and held accountable to their representatives. Stalin is too crude, and this defect which is entirely acceptable in our milieu and in relationships among us as communists, becomes unacceptable in the position of General Secretary.
I therefore propose to comrades that they should devise a means of removing him from this job and should appoint to this job someone else who is distinguished from comrade Stalin in all other respects only by the single superior aspect that he should be more tolerant, more polite and more attentive towards comrades, less capricious, etc.
Rise of Joseph Stalin. We have fallen behind the advanced countries by fifty to a hundred years. We must close that gap in ten years. Either we do this or we'll be crushed. This is what our obligations before the workers and peasants of the USSR dictate to us. Further information: Soviet famine of — Death and state funeral of Joseph Stalin.
Stalin brutally, artfully, indefatigably built a personal dictatorship within the Bolshevik dictatorship. Then he launched and saw through a bloody socialist remaking of the entire former empire, presided over a victory in the greatest war in human history, and took the Soviet Union to the epicentre of global affairs. More than for any other historical figure, even Gandhi or Churchill, a biography of Stalin It is hard for me to reconcile the courtesy and consideration he showed me personally with the ghastly cruelty of his wholesale liquidations.
Others, who did not know him personally, see only the tyrant in Stalin. I saw the other side as well — his high intelligence, that fantastic grasp of detail, his shrewdness and his surprising human sensitivity that he was capable of showing, at least in the war years.
I found him better informed than Roosevelt, more realistic than Churchill, in some ways the most effective of the war leaders I must confess that for me Stalin remains the most inscrutable and contradictory character I have known — and leave the final word to the judgment of history.
Excess mortality in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. During his years as a revolutionary, he adopted the alias "Stalin", and after the October Revolution he officially made it his name. This birth date is maintained in his School Leaving Certificate, his extensive tsarist Russia police file, a police arrest record from 18 April which gave his age as 23 years, and all other surviving pre-Revolution documents.
As late as , Stalin himself listed his birthday as 18 December in a curriculum vitae in his own handwriting. After coming to power in , Stalin gave his birth date as 21 December Old Style date 9 December That became the day his birthday was celebrated in the Soviet Union. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
The Cold War: A New History. New York: Penguin Press.
Flawed Succession: Russia's Power Transfer Crises. Lexington Books. Slavic Review. History News Network. Retrieved 1 December So what was the motivation behind the Terror? The answers required a lot more digging, but it gradually became clearer that the violence of the late s was driven by fear. Most Bolsheviks, Stalin among them, believed that the revolutions of , and had failed because their leaders hadn't adequately anticipated the ferocity of the counter-revolutionary reaction from the establishment.
They were determined not to make the same mistake. Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag". The American Historical Review. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 23 September New studies using declassified Gulag archives have provisionally established a consensus on mortality and "inhumanity.
Stalinism in Post-Communist Perspective: Europe-Asia Studies , Vol. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 4 August History of the Present. Archived PDF from the original on 5 February Retrieved 22 September Putin opens first Soviet victims memorial".
BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 30 October The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 25 June The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 16 April Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 21 June The Moscow Times.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Brackman, Roman The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. London and Portland: Frank Cass Publishers. Brent, Jonathan; Naumov, Vladimir Stalin's Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors, — Conquest, Robert Breaker of Nations. New York and London: The Great Terror: A Reassessment fortieth anniversary ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Davies, Norman .
White Eagle, Red Star: Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Europe-Asia Studies. Ellman, Michael Cambridge Journal of Economics. Some Comments" PDF. Etinger, Iakov Stalin's Solution to the Jewish Question".
In Ro'i, Yaacov ed. The Cummings Center Series. Frank Cass. Fainsod, Jerry F. How the Soviet Union is Governed. Harvard University Press. Gellately, Robert Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Jonathan Cape. Getty, J. American Historical Review. Glantz, David Archived from the original PDF on 9 July Fitzpatrick, Sheila On Stalin's Team: Melbourne University Press. Haslam, Jonathan The Historical Journal. Himmer, Robert The Russian Review. Khlevniuk, Oleg V.
New Biography of a Dictator. Translated by Nora Seligman Favorov. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Kotkin, Stephen Paradoxes of Power, — Allen Lane. One of the most "Stalinist" acts of the period had been the murder of the leading Jewish actor and producer Solomon Mikhoels.
Here again, the full story only came out in the mids. The killing was done by a secret police team from Moscow, headed by the deputy minister, Sergei Ogoltsov. The actor was crushed under a Studebaker, then his body was left in a side street and his death attributed to a car accident. Mikhoels was buried with honours. We have the details because, on Stalin's death, police chief Lavrenti Beria arrested the perpetrators, though they were later released and the case was hushed up.
But we now at last have their confessions, which include the detail that they were instructed to "put nothing on paper", one of them adding that this was always the rule in such cases. Which means, of course, that there must be much information about the regime's actions that will never be "documented". We have learned much in recent years, but much will remain beyond our grasp forever. What of the mind behind all this? In his private life, if you can call it that, Stalin wanted adulation, was extremely touchy, but at the same time wished to appear the hearty comrade.
All this informed the long, dreary soirees described by his daughter, with colleagues in constant fear.
But in contrast, he is often described by foreigners as having charm - a word used by the Nazi negotiators in , though HG Wells said much the same, and even Churchill felt it occasionally.
From the start, Stalin was noted for an extraordinary capacity to enforce his will, as is also said of Hitler. This is a characteristic little studied, and doubtless hard to analyse. The Old Bolshevik Fyodor Raskolnikov, rehabilitated under Khrushchev, and de-rehabilitated by his successors, saw Stalin as lacking "farsightedness". The purge of the great majority of experienced red army officers was a huge negative, as was, in another sphere, the execution of many of the engineers newly trained to run the state-driven economy, the former for treason, the latter for sabotage.
As a consequence, both army and industry had been gravely weakened by the second world war and this nearly produced disaster when Hitler invaded. Historians have written that Stalin was a "consummate actor". When post-Soviet Russian historians saw that Stalin had deceived Roosevelt in crucial world war two negotiations, academics pointed out that this was perhaps not very surprising, since he had even managed to deceive Alexei Rykov, Lenin's successor as head of the Soviet government, who had served with him on the politburo in daily, close contact for over a decade - only to be shot later.
In fact, if we look back at Stalin, we see not only terror and ruthlessness, but - even more - deception. Not only in such things as the faked public trials, the disappearance of leading figures, of writers, of physicists, even of astronomers, but in the invention of a factually non-existent society.
The British socialists Sydney and Beatrice Webb were taken in by the not very sophisticated trick of having meaningless elections, trade unions, economic claims and so on. One major attribute of Stalinism was stupefaction or stultification.
His subjects, or dupes, had to act as if they believed what the Kremlin was telling them in the press, on the radio. Anna Akhmatova, the poet, said that no one could understand the Soviet system who had not been subjected to the continuous roar of the Soviet radios at street corners and elsewhere. And, with all that, the effective banning of non-Stalinist thought, or its expression.